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    18

    The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Chi became a

    slave to Chau. Pi-kan remonstrated with him and died.

    Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue."

    Hui of Liu-hsia, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his

    office. Some one said to him, "Is it not yet time for you, sir, to leave this?"

    He replied, "Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not

    experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a

    crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?"

    The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the manner in which he should

    treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chi

    family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the

    Chil and that given to the chief of the Mang family." He also said, "I am old; I

    cannot use his doctrines." Confucius took his departure.

    The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of female musicians, which Chi Hwan

    received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure.

    The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, "O

    FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless;

    but the future may still be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up

    your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government."

    Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yu hastened

    away, so that he could not talk with him.

    Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the field together, when Confucius

    passed by them, and sent Tsze-lu to inquire for the ford.

    Ch'ang-tsu said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?"

    Tsze-lu told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iu.', "Is it not K'ung of Lu?" asked he.

    "Yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined, "He knows the ford."

    Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him, "Who are you, sir?" He

    answered, "I am Chung Yu." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?"

    asked the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-ni said to him, "Disorder,

    like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will

    change its state for you? Rather than follow one who merely withdraws from this

    one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the

    world altogether?" With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with

    his work, without stopping.

    Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed with a

    sigh, "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were the

    same with us. If I associate not with these people,-with mankind,-with whom

    shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would

    be no use for me to change its state."

    Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old

    man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lu said to

    him, "Have you seen my master, sir?" The old man replied, "Your four limbs are

    unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:-who is

    your master?" With this, he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded to

    weed.

    Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.

    The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl,

    prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.

    Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master

    said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lu back to see him again, but when he got

    to the place, the old man was gone.

    Tsze-lu then said to the family, "Not to take office is not righteous. If

    the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets

    aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing

    to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to

    confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties

    belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is

    aware of that."

    The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-i, Shu-ch'i,

    Yuchung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.

    The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any

    taint in their persons; such, I think, were Po-i and Shu-ch'i.

    "It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia! and of Shaolien, that they surrendered

    their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words

    corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see.

    This is all that is to be remarked in them.

    "It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they hid themselves in

    their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their persons, they

    succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they acted

    according to the exigency of the times.

    "I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am

    predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined."

    The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i.

    Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'u. Liao, the band

    master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. Chueh, the band master at the fourth

    meal, went to Ch'in.

    Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.

    Wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.

    Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the musical stone,

    withdrew to an island in the sea.

    The duke of Chau addressed his son, the duke of Lu, saying, "The virtuous

    prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great ministers to

    repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss

    from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man

    talents for every employment."

    To Chau belonged the eight officers, Po-ta, Po-kwo, Chung-tu, Chung-hwu,

    Shu-ya, Shuhsia, Chi-sui, and Chi-kwa.





    19

    Tsze-chang said, "The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening

    danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is

    presented to him, he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are

    reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel.

    Such a man commands our approbation indeed

    Tsze-chang said, "When a man holds fast to virtue, but without seeking to

    enlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without firm sincerity, what

    account can be made of his existence or non-existence?"

    The disciples of Tsze-hsia asked Tsze-chang about the principles that should

    characterize mutual intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, "What does Tsze-hsia say on

    the subject?" They replied, "Tsze-hsia says: 'Associate with those who can

    advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do so.'" Tsze-chang observed,

    "This is different from what I have learned. The superior man honors the

    talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the

    incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue?-who is there among men

    whom I will not bear with? Am I devoid of talents and virtue?-men will put me

    away from them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?"

    Tsze-hsia said, "Even in inferior studies and employments there is something

    worth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry them out to what is

    remote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior

    man does not practice them."

    Tsze-hsia said, "He, who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet, and

    from month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed

    to love to learn."

    Tsze-hsia said, "There are learning extensively, and having a firm and

    sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self-application:-

    virtue is in such a course."

    Tsze-hsia said, "Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to

    accomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach to the utmost

    of his principles."

    Tsze-hsia said, "The mean man is sure to gloss his faults."

    Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a

    distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to

    speak, his language is firm and decided."

    Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may

    then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, they

    will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of his

    prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his confidence,

    the prince will think that he is vilifying him."

    Tsze-hsia said, "When a person does not transgress the boundary line in the

    great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues."

    Tsze-yu said, "The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsia, in sprinkling and

    sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, are

    sufficiently accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and they

    are left ignorant of what is essential.-How can they be acknowledged as

    sufficiently taught?"

    Tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, "Alas! Yen Yu is wrong. According to

    the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there which he

    considers of prime importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers

    of secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But as in the case

    of plants, which are assorted according to their classes, so he deals with his

    disciples. How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of

    them? Is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the

    consummation of learning?"

    Tsze-hsia said, "The officer, having discharged all his duties, should

    devote his leisure to learning. The student, having completed his learning,

    should apply himself to be an officer."

    Tsze-hsia said, "Mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of grief,

    should stop with that."

    Tsze-hsia said, "My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done,

    but yet he is not perfectly virtuous."

    The philosopher Tsang said, "How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is

    difficult along with him to practice virtue."

    The philosopher Tsang said, "I heard this from our Master: 'Men may not have

    shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so,

    on the occasion of mourning for their parents."

    The philosopher Tsang said, "I have heard this from our Master:-'The filial

    piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent to, but,

    as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his father's mode

    of government, it is difficult to be attained to.'"

    The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fu to be chief criminal

    judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, "The rulers have

    failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been disorganized for a

    long time. When you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for

    and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability."

    Tsze-kung said, "Chau's wickedness was not so great as that name implies.

    Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where all

    the evil of the world will flow in upon him."

    Tsze-kung said, "The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the

    sun and moon. He has his faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all

    men look up to him."

    Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tszekung, saying. "From whom did Chung-ni get

    his learning?"

    Tsze-kung replied, "The doctrines of Wan and Wu have not yet fallen to the

    ground. They are to be found among men. Men of talents and virtue remember the

    greater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue,

    remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan and Wu. Where could

    our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them? And yet

    what necessity was there for his having a regular master?"

    Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great officers in the court, saying, "Tsze-

    kung is superior to Chung-ni."

    Tsze-fu Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, "Let me

    use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to

    the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the

    apartments.

    "The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find the door

    and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor all

    the officers in their rich array.

    "But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the

    observation of the chief only what might have been expected?"

    Shu-sun Wu-shu having spoken revilingly of Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said, "It is

    of no use doing so. Chung-ni cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other

    men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is the sun or

    moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may wish to cut

    himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows

    that he does not know his own capacity.

    Ch'an Tsze-ch' in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, "You are too modest. How can

    Chung-ni be said to be superior to you?"

    Tsze-kung said to him, "For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and

    for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in

    what we say.

    "Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavens

    cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.

    "Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of a

    family, we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage's

    rule:-he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be established; he

    would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make them

    happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions; he would

    stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would

    be glorious. When he died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for

    him to be attained to?"
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      20

      Yao said, "Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now

      rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be

      distress and want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a

      perpetual end."

      Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yu.

      T'ang said, "I the child Li, presume to use a dark-colored victim, and

      presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinner I

      dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The

      examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I commit offenses,

      they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you

      in the myriad regions commit offenses, these offenses must rest on my person."

      Chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.

      "Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men.

      The people are throwing blame upon me, the One man."

      He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of the

      laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the kingdom

      took its course.

      He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose line

      of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired into

      obscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned

      towards him.

      What he attached chief importance to were the food of the people, the duties

      of mourning, and sacrifices.

      By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose

      trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his

      justice, all were delighted.

      Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, "In what way should a person in

      authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?" The Master

      replied, "Let him honor the five excellent, and banish away the four bad,

      things;-then may he conduct government properly." Tsze-chang said, "What are

      meant by the five excellent things?" The Master said, "When the person in

      authority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the

      people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being

      covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is

      majestic without being fierce."

      Tsze-chang said, "What is meant by being beneficent without great

      expenditure?" The Master replied, "When the person in authority makes more

      beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit;-is

      not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he chooses the labors

      which are proper, and makes them labor on them, who will repine? When his

      desires are set on benevolent government, and he secures it, who will accuse him

      of covetousness? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things

      great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;-is not this to

      maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and

      throws a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at with

      awe;-is not this to be majestic without being fierce?"

      Tsze-chang then asked, "What are meant by the four bad things?" The Master

      said, "To put the people to death without having instructed them;-this is called

      cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without having

      given them warning;-this is called oppression. To issue orders as if without

      urgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with severity;-

      this is called injury. And, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, to

      do it in a stingy way;-this is called acting the part of a mere official."

      The Master said, "Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is

      impossible to be a superior man.

      "Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is impossible for

      the character to be established.

      "Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men."
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        请斑竹置顶,以供养大众修习。
        字民工,号外来人员
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          顶了哈  维嘉是个好的版主~~~
          君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏于事而慎于言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。

          字敬德   号文斋主人
          http://www.confucius2000.com/
          博客:hsiangfong.blog.guxiang.com
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            谢谢维嘉,总是帮着我。若见面了,一定请你吃饭。
            视思明,听思聪,色思温,貌思恭,言思忠,事思敬,疑思问,忿思难,见得思义。
            我也有微博了 http://www.weibo.com/u/2010949681
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              我等着姑奶奶大架光临,呵呵。
              字民工,号外来人员
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                多謝衛東跟維嘉,供給論語的英譯本。從前我也看過一本譯本,全是Chinese English (要懂中文,才可以會意到英文的字句) 。

                如果想學英文,James 的不錯。可以為師,多翻幾次字典,便連生字也會學到。
                孔氏宗亲网感谢您的参与
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