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    子張第十九
    BOOK XIX. TSZE-CHANG.

    【第一章】子張曰、士、見危致命、見得思義、祭思敬、喪思哀、其可已矣。
    【第二章】子張曰、執德不弘、信道不篤、焉能為有、焉能為亡。
         CHAP. I. Tsze-chang said, 'The scholar, trained for public
    duty, seeing threatening danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life.
    When the opportunity of gain is presented to him, he thinks of
    righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are reverential. In
    mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should
    feel. Such a man commands our approbation indeed.'
         CHAP. II. Tsze-chang said, 'When a man holds fast to
    virtue, but without seeking to enlarge it, and believes right
    principles, but without firm sincerity, what account can be
    made of his existence or non-existence?'

    【第三章】子夏之門人問交於子張。子張曰、子夏云何。對曰、子夏曰、可
    者與之、其不可者拒之。子張曰、異乎吾所聞、君子尊賢而容眾、嘉善而矜
    不能、我之大賢與、於人何所不容、我之不賢與、人將拒我、如之何其拒人
    也。
    【第四章】子夏曰、雖小道、必有可觀者焉、致遠恐泥、是以君子不為也。
         CHAP. III. The disciples of Tsze-hsia asked Tsze-chang
    about the principles that should characterize mutual
    intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, 'What does Tsze-hsia say on the
    subject?' They replied, 'Tsze-hsia says:-- "Associate with those
    who can advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot
    do so."' Tsze-chang observed, 'This is different from what I
    have learned. The superior man honours the talented and
    virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the
    incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue?--
    who is there among men whom I will not bear with? Am I
    devoid of talents and virtue?-- men will put me away from
    them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?'
         CHAP. IV. Tsze-hsia said, 'Even in inferior studies and
    employments there is something worth being looked at; but if
    it be attempted to carry them out to what is remote, there is a
    danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior
    man does not practise them.'


    【第五章】子夏曰、日知其所亡、月無忘其所能、可謂好學也已矣。
    【第六章】子夏曰、博學而篤志、切問而近思、仁在其中矣。
    【第七章】子夏曰、百工居肆、以成其事、君子學以致其道。

         CHAP. V. Tsze-hsia said, 'He, who from day to day
    recognises what he has not yet, and from month to month does
    not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed to love
    to learn.'
         CHAP. VI. Tsze-hsia said, 'There are learning extensively,
    and having a firm and sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness,
    and reflecting with self-application:-- virtue is in such a
    course.'
         CHAP. VII. Tsze-hsia said, 'Mechanics have their shops to
    dwell in, in order to accomplish their works. The superior man
    learns, in order to reach to the utmost of his principles.'

    【第八章】子夏曰、小人之過也、必文。
    【第九章】子夏曰、君子有三變、望之儼然、即之也溫、聽其言也厲。
    【第十章】子夏曰、君子信而後勞其民、未信、則以為厲己也、信而後諫、
    未信、則以為謗己也。
    【十一章】子夏曰、大德不踰閑、小德出入可也。
         CHAP. VIII. Tsze-hsia said, 'The mean man is sure to gloss
    his faults.'
         CHAP. IX. Tsze-hsia said, 'The superior man undergoes
    three changes. Looked at from a distance, he appears stern;
    when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to speak, his
    language is firm and decided.'
         CHAP. X. Tsze-hsia said, 'The superior man, having
    obtained their confidence, may then impose labours on his
    people. If he have not gained their confidence, they will think
    that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of
    his prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not
    gained his confidence, the prince will think that he is vilifying
    him.'
         CHAP. XI. Tsze-hsia said, 'When a person does not
    transgress the boundary line in the great virtues, he may pass
    and repass it in the small virtues.'


    【十二章】【一節】子游曰、子夏之門人小子、當洒掃、應對、進退、則可
    矣、抑末也、本之則無、如之何。【二節】子夏聞之曰、噫、言游過矣、君
    子之道、孰先傳焉、孰後倦焉、譬諸草木、區以別矣、君子之道、焉可誣也、
    有始有卒者、其惟聖人乎。
         CHAP. XII. 1. Tsze-yu said, 'The disciples and followers of
    Tsze-hsia, in sprinkling and sweeping the ground, in answering
    and replying, in advancing and receding, are sufficiently
    accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and
    they are left ignorant of what is essential.-- How can they be
    acknowledged as sufficiently taught?'
         2. Tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, 'Alas! Yen Yu
    is wrong. According to the way of the superior man in teaching,
    what departments are there which he considers of prime
    importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers of
    secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But
    as in the case of plants, which are assorted according to their
    classes, so he deals with his disciples. How can the way of a
    superior man be such as to make fools of any of them? Is it not
    the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the
    consummation of learning?'

    【十三章】子夏曰、仕而優則學、學而優則仕。
    【十四章】子游曰、喪致乎哀而止。
    【十五章】子游曰、吾友張也、為難能也、然而未仁。
    【十六章】曾子曰、堂堂乎張也、難與並為仁矣。
    【十七章】曾子曰、吾聞諸夫子、人未有自致者也、必也親喪乎。
         CHAP. XIII. Tsze-hsia said, 'The officer, having discharged
    all his duties, should devote his leisure to learning. The student,
    having completed his learning, should apply himself to be an
    officer.'
         CHAP. XIV. Tsze-hsia said, 'Mourning, having been carried
    to the utmost degree of grief, should stop with that.'
         CHAP. XV. Tsze-hsia said, 'My friend Chang can do things
    which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous.'
         CHAP. XVI. The philosopher Tsang said, 'How imposing is
    the manner of Chang! It is difficult along with him to practise
    virtue.'
         CHAP. XVII. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I heard this
    from our Master:-- "Men may not have shown what is in them
    to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so, on
    occasion of mourning for their parents."'

    【十八章】曾子曰、吾聞諸夫子、孟莊子之孝也、其他可能也、其不改父之
    臣、與父之政、是難能也。
    【十九章】孟氏使陽膚為士師、問於曾子。曾子曰、上失其道、民散、久矣、
    如得其情、則哀矜而勿喜。
    【二十章】子貢曰、紂之不善、不如是之甚也、是以君子惡居下流、天下之惡皆歸焉。
         CHAP. XVIII. The philosopher Tsang said, 'I have heard
    this from our Master:-- "The filial piety of Mang Chwang, in
    other matters, was what other men are competent to, but, as
    seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his
    father's mode of government, it is difficult to be attained to."'
         CHAP. XIX. The chief of the Mang family having
    appointed Yang Fu to be chief criminal judge, the latter
    consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, 'The rulers have
    failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been
    disorganised, for a long time. When you have found out the
    truth of any accusation, be grieved for and pity them, and do
    not feel joy at your own ability.'
         CHAP. XX. Tsze-kung said, 'Chau's wickedness was not so
    great as that name implies. Therefore, the superior man hates
    to dwell in a low-lying situation, where all the evil of the world will
    flow in upon him.'


    【廿一章】子貢曰、君子之過也、如日月之食焉、過也、人皆見之、更也、
    人皆仰之。
    【廿二章】【一節】衛公孫朝問於子貢曰、仲尼焉學。【二節】子貢曰、文
    武之道、未墜於地、在人、賢者識其大者、不賢者識其小者、莫不有文武之
    道焉、夫子焉不學、而亦何常師之有、

         CHAP. XXI. Tsze-kung said, 'The faults of the superior
    man are like the eclipses of the sun and moon. He has his
    faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all men
    look up to him.'
         CHAP. XXII. 1. Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tsze-kung,
    saying, 'From whom did Chung-ni get his learning?'
         2. Tsze-kung replied, 'The doctrines of Wan and Wu have
    not yet fallen to the ground. They are to be found among men.
    Men of talents and virtue remember the greater principles of
    them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue,
    remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan
    and Wu. Where could our Master go that he should not have an
    opportunity of learning them? And yet what necessity was
    there for his having a regular master?'

    【廿三章】【一節】叔孫武叔語大夫於朝曰、子貢賢於仲尼。【二節】子服
    景伯以告子貢。子貢曰、譬之宮牆、賜之牆也、及肩、窺見室家之好。【三
    節】夫子之牆、數仞、不得其門而入、不見宗廟之美、百官之富。【四節】
    得其門者或寡矣、夫子之云、不亦宜乎。
         CHAP. XXIII. 1. Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great
    officers in the court, saying, 'Tsze-kung is superior to Chung-ni.'
         2. Tsze-fu Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-
    kung, who said, 'Let me use the comparison of a house and its
    encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to the shoulders. One
    may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the
    apartments.
         3. 'The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one
    do not find the door and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral
    temple with its beauties, nor all the officers in their rich array.
         4. 'But I may assume that they are few who find the door.
    Was not the observation of the chief only what might have
    been expected?'

    【廿四章】叔孫武叔毀仲尼。子貢曰、無以為也、仲尼不可毀也、他人之賢
    者、丘陵也、猶可踰也、仲尼、日月也、無得而踰焉、人雖欲自絕、其何傷
    於日月乎、多見其不知量也。
    【廿五章】【一節】陳子禽謂子貢曰、子為恭也、仲尼豈賢於子乎。【二節】
    子貢曰、君子一言以為知、一言以為不知、言不可不慎也。【三節】夫子之不
    可及也、猶天之不可階而升也
         CHAP. XXIV. Shu-sun Wu-shu having spoken revilingly of
    Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said, 'It is of no use doing so. Chung-ni
    cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other men are
    hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is
    the sun or moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although
    a man may wish to cut himself off from the sage, what harm
    can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows that he does not
    know his own capacity.
         CHAP. XXV. 1. Ch'an Tsze-ch'in, addressing Tsze-kung,
    said, 'You are too modest. How can Chung-ni be said to be
    superior to you?'
         2. Tsze-kung said to him, 'For one word a man is often
    deemed to be wise, and for one word he is often deemed to be
    foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in what we say.
         3. 'Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way
    as the heavens cannot be gone up to by the steps of a stair.

    。【四節】夫子之得邦家者、所謂立之斯立、
    道之期行、綏之期來、動之斯和、其生也榮、其死也哀、如之何其可及也。
         4. 'Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a State
    or the chief of a Family, we should find verified the description
    which has been given of a sage's rule:-- he would plant the
    people, and forthwith they would be established; he would lead
    them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make
    them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his
    dominions; he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would
    be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he
    died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for him
    to be attained to?'

    堯曰第二十
    BOOK XX. YAO YUEH.

    【第一章】【一節】堯曰、咨、爾舜、天之曆數在爾躬、允執其中、四海困
    窮、天祿永終。【二節】舜亦以命禹。【三節】曰、予小子履、敢用玄牡、
    敢昭告于皇皇后帝、有罪不敢赦、帝臣不蔽、簡在帝心、朕躬有罪、無以萬
    方、萬方有罪、罪在朕躬。
         CHAP. I. 1. Yao said, 'Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-
    determined order of succession now rests in your person.
    Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be distress and
    want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a
    perpetual end.'
         2. Shun also used the same language in giving charge to
    Yu.
         3. T'ang said, 'I the child Li, presume to use a dark-
    coloured victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most
    great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and
    thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The
    examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I
    commit offences, they are not to be attributed to you, the
    people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions
    commit offences, these offences must rest on my person.'

    【四節】周有大賚、善人是富。【五節】雖有周親、不如仁人、
    百姓有過、在予一人。【六節】謹權量、審法度、修廢官、四方之政行焉。
    【七節】興滅國、繼絕世、舉逸民、天下之民歸心焉。【八節】所重民、食、
    喪、祭。【九節】寬則得眾、信、則民任焉、敏、則有功、公則說。
         4. Chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.
         5. 'Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal
    to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me,
    the One man.'
         6. He carefully attended to the weights and measures,
    examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers,
    and the good government of the kingdom took its course.
         7. He revived States that had been extinguished, restored
    families whose line of succession had been broken, and called
    to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that
    throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned
    towards him.
         8. What he attached chief importance to, were the food of
    the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices.
         9. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made
    the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his
    achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.

    【第二章】【一節】子張問於孔子曰、何如、斯可以從政矣。子曰、尊五美、
    屏四惡、斯可以從政矣。子張曰、何謂五美。子曰、君子惠、而不費、勞、
    而不怨、欲、而不貪、泰、而不驕、威、而不猛。【二節】子張曰、何謂惠
    而不費。子曰、因民之所利而利之、斯不亦惠而不費乎、擇可勞而勞之、
    又誰怨、欲仁而得仁、又焉貪、君子無眾寡、無小大、無敢慢、斯不亦
    泰而不驕乎、君子正其衣冠、尊其瞻視、儼然人望而畏之、斯不亦威而不猛乎。
         CHAP. II. 1. Tsze-chang asked Confucius, saying, 'In what
    way should a person in authority act in order that he may
    conduct government properly?' The Master replied, 'Let him
    honour the five excellent, and banish away the four bad,
    things;-- then may he conduct government properly.' Tsze-
    chang said, 'What are meant by the five excellent things?' The
    Master said, 'When the person in authority is beneficent
    without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people
    without their repining; when he pursues what he desires
    without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease
    without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce.'
         2. Tsze-chang said, 'What is meant by being beneficent
    without great expenditure?' The Master replied, 'When the
    person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the
    things from which


    they naturally derive benefit;-- is not this being beneficent
    without great expenditure? When he chooses the labours which
    are proper, and makes them labour on them, who will repine?
    When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he
    secures it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he
    has to do with many people or few, or with things great or
    small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;-- is not this
    to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his
    clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that,
    thus dignified, he is looked at with awe;-- is not this to be
    majestic without being fierce?'
    【三節】子張曰、何謂四惡。子曰、不
    教而殺、謂之虐、不戒視成、謂之暴、慢令致期、謂之賊、猶之與人也、出納之吝、謂之有司。
         3. Tsze-chang then asked, 'What are meant by the four
    bad things?' The Master said, 'To put the people to death
    without having instructed them;-- this is called cruelty. To
    require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without
    having given them warning;-- this is called oppression. To issue
    orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time
    comes, to insist on them with severity;-- this is called injury.
    And, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way;-- this is called
    acting the part of a mere official.'


    【第三章】【一節】子曰、不知命、無以為君子也。【二節】不知禮、無以
    立也。【三節】不知言、無以知人也。

         CHAP III. 1. The Master said, 'Without recognising the
    ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.
         2. 'Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it
    is impossible for the character to be established.
         3. 'Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to
    know men.'

    谱名:孔祥东| 衢州派五支 子宣公后 | 新浪博客: http://blog.sina.com.cn/xiangdong75    
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