The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount of Chi became a
slave to Chau. Pi-kan remonstrated with him and died.
Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue."
Hui of Liu-hsia, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from his
office. Some one said to him, "Is it not yet time for you, sir, to leave this?"
He replied, "Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not
experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a
crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?"
The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the manner in which he should
treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the Chi
family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of the
Chil and that given to the chief of the Mang family." He also said, "I am old; I
cannot use his doctrines." Confucius took his departure.
The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of female musicians, which Chi Hwan
received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his departure.
The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and saying, "O
FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof is useless;
but the future may still be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up
your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government."
Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yu hastened
away, so that he could not talk with him.
Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the field together, when Confucius
passed by them, and sent Tsze-lu to inquire for the ford.
Ch'ang-tsu said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?"
Tsze-lu told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iu.', "Is it not K'ung of Lu?" asked he.
"Yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined, "He knows the ford."
Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him, "Who are you, sir?" He
answered, "I am Chung Yu." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?"
asked the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-ni said to him, "Disorder,
like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that will
change its state for you? Rather than follow one who merely withdraws from this
one and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from the
world altogether?" With this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with
his work, without stopping.
Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed with a
sigh, "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were the
same with us. If I associate not with these people,-with mankind,-with whom
shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the empire, there would
be no use for me to change its state."
Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old
man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lu said to
him, "Have you seen my master, sir?" The old man replied, "Your four limbs are
unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:-who is
your master?" With this, he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded to
Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.
The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl,
prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his two sons.
Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his adventure. The Master
said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lu back to see him again, but when he got
to the place, the old man was gone.
Tsze-lu then said to the family, "Not to take office is not righteous. If
the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets
aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing
to maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to
confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the righteous duties
belonging to it. As to the failure of right principles to make progress, he is
aware of that."
The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-i, Shu-ch'i,
Yuchung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.
The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any
taint in their persons; such, I think, were Po-i and Shu-ch'i.
"It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia! and of Shaolien, that they surrendered
their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words
corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see.
This is all that is to be remarked in them.
"It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they hid themselves in
their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their persons, they
succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they acted
according to the exigency of the times.
"I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am
predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined."
The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i.
Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'u. Liao, the band
master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. Chueh, the band master at the fourth
meal, went to Ch'in.
Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.
Wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.
Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the musical stone,
withdrew to an island in the sea.
The duke of Chau addressed his son, the duke of Lu, saying, "The virtuous
prince does not neglect his relations. He does not cause the great ministers to
repine at his not employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss
from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man
talents for every employment."
To Chau belonged the eight officers, Po-ta, Po-kwo, Chung-tu, Chung-hwu,
Shu-ya, Shuhsia, Chi-sui, and Chi-kwa.
Tsze-chang said, "The scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threatening
danger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. When the opportunity of gain is
presented to him, he thinks of righteousness. In sacrificing, his thoughts are
reverential. In mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel.
Such a man commands our approbation indeed
Tsze-chang said, "When a man holds fast to virtue, but without seeking to
enlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without firm sincerity, what
account can be made of his existence or non-existence?"
The disciples of Tsze-hsia asked Tsze-chang about the principles that should
characterize mutual intercourse. Tsze-chang asked, "What does Tsze-hsia say on
the subject?" They replied, "Tsze-hsia says: 'Associate with those who can
advantage you. Put away from you those who cannot do so.'" Tsze-chang observed,
"This is different from what I have learned. The superior man honors the
talented and virtuous, and bears with all. He praises the good, and pities the
incompetent. Am I possessed of great talents and virtue?-who is there among men
whom I will not bear with? Am I devoid of talents and virtue?-men will put me
away from them. What have we to do with the putting away of others?"
Tsze-hsia said, "Even in inferior studies and employments there is something
worth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry them out to what is
remote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. Therefore, the superior
man does not practice them."
Tsze-hsia said, "He, who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet, and
from month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeed
to love to learn."
Tsze-hsia said, "There are learning extensively, and having a firm and
sincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self-application:-
virtue is in such a course."
Tsze-hsia said, "Mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order to
accomplish their works. The superior man learns, in order to reach to the utmost
of his principles."
Tsze-hsia said, "The mean man is sure to gloss his faults."
Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man undergoes three changes. Looked at from a
distance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard to
speak, his language is firm and decided."
Tsze-hsia said, "The superior man, having obtained their confidence, may
then impose labors on his people. If he have not gained their confidence, they
will think that he is oppressing them. Having obtained the confidence of his
prince, one may then remonstrate with him. If he have not gained his confidence,
the prince will think that he is vilifying him."
Tsze-hsia said, "When a person does not transgress the boundary line in the
great virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues."
Tsze-yu said, "The disciples and followers of Tsze-hsia, in sprinkling and
sweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, are
sufficiently accomplished. But these are only the branches of learning, and they
are left ignorant of what is essential.-How can they be acknowledged as
Tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, "Alas! Yen Yu is wrong. According to
the way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there which he
considers of prime importance, and delivers? what are there which he considers
of secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? But as in the case
of plants, which are assorted according to their classes, so he deals with his
disciples. How can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any of
them? Is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and the
consummation of learning?"
Tsze-hsia said, "The officer, having discharged all his duties, should
devote his leisure to learning. The student, having completed his learning,
should apply himself to be an officer."
Tsze-hsia said, "Mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of grief,
should stop with that."
Tsze-hsia said, "My friend Chang can do things which are hard to be done,
but yet he is not perfectly virtuous."
The philosopher Tsang said, "How imposing is the manner of Chang! It is
difficult along with him to practice virtue."
The philosopher Tsang said, "I heard this from our Master: 'Men may not have
shown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so,
on the occasion of mourning for their parents."
The philosopher Tsang said, "I have heard this from our Master:-'The filial
piety of Mang Chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent to, but,
as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his father's mode
of government, it is difficult to be attained to.'"
The chief of the Mang family having appointed Yang Fu to be chief criminal
judge, the latter consulted the philosopher Tsang. Tsang said, "The rulers have
failed in their duties, and the people consequently have been disorganized for a
long time. When you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved for
and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability."
Tsze-kung said, "Chau's wickedness was not so great as that name implies.
Therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where all
the evil of the world will flow in upon him."
Tsze-kung said, "The faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of the
sun and moon. He has his faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and all
men look up to him."
Kung-sun Ch'ao of Wei asked Tszekung, saying. "From whom did Chung-ni get
Tsze-kung replied, "The doctrines of Wan and Wu have not yet fallen to the
ground. They are to be found among men. Men of talents and virtue remember the
greater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue,
remember the smaller. Thus, all possess the doctrines of Wan and Wu. Where could
our Master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them? And yet
what necessity was there for his having a regular master?"
Shu-sun Wu-shu observed to the great officers in the court, saying, "Tsze-
kung is superior to Chung-ni."
Tsze-fu Ching-po reported the observation to Tsze-kung, who said, "Let me
use the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. My wall only reaches to
the shoulders. One may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in the
"The wall of my Master is several fathoms high. If one do not find the door
and enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor all
the officers in their rich array.
"But I may assume that they are few who find the door. Was not the
observation of the chief only what might have been expected?"
Shu-sun Wu-shu having spoken revilingly of Chung-ni, Tsze-kung said, "It is
of no use doing so. Chung-ni cannot be reviled. The talents and virtue of other
men are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. Chung-ni is the sun or
moon, which it is not possible to step over. Although a man may wish to cut
himself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or moon? He only shows
that he does not know his own capacity.
Ch'an Tsze-ch' in, addressing Tsze-kung, said, "You are too modest. How can
Chung-ni be said to be superior to you?"
Tsze-kung said to him, "For one word a man is often deemed to be wise, and
for one word he is often deemed to be foolish. We ought to be careful indeed in
what we say.
"Our Master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavens
cannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.
"Were our Master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of a
family, we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage's
rule:-he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be established; he
would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make them
happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions; he would
stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would
be glorious. When he died, he would be bitterly lamented. How is it possible for
him to be attained to?"