早年的孔子 The young Confucius

早年的孔子 The young Confucius

(Proper nouns such as name of a person, titles, name of a book, feudal state, and places will be included as Chinese in order to keep the correct reference. A brief note to explain may be followed immediately.  Since I do not have the reference book on standardized Pinyin, I have no choice but to use the phonetic either from the computer or from other sources.)

因為孔子被尊為聖人,所以他的出生便有不同的傳說,更有點神化。據《史记·孔子世家》記載,孔子是叔梁紇跟顏徵在在尼丘山祈禱後所生。看來,孔子是生在一個小官員的大家庭,(他有三個媽媽,九個姐姐,一個哥哥。)他出生時,可能受到一點重視,不過絕不如下面聽聞的傳說。據《祖庭廣記》所載,生時 “有二龍繞室,五老降庭..” 。在《拾遺記》所記載,“有麟吐玉書於闕里…” 等等傳說。有說孔子是在尼山坤靈洞東出生。更有說因他的長相醜陋,被疑為怪物,被父親拋棄,但有一頭雌虎把他銜回洞中餵養,更有老鷹為他扇涼。另有一說孔子是在山坡的草地上出生,令那片草地永遠染成紅色。那些傳說,不外是希望可以把孔子顯出是天賜的凸出人物。

Being honored as a holy person, the birth of Confucius had many different legendary stories; some even became mythic.  Per the record in The Noble Confucius Family as documented in the History Archive (《史记·孔子世家》), Confucius was born after a prayer in the Nei Yau Hill (尼丘山) by his parents, Suk Liang Nat ( 叔梁紇 ) and Yan Jing Joi ( 顏徵在 ).  Confucius was born in a big family of a minor official ( he had three mothers, nine sisters, and a brother).  His birth might draw some attentions, but certainly it was not as these words of mouths as mentioned in the following.  Per Jo Ting Gong Gei (《祖庭廣記》means the broad record of the ancient family), at his birth time, two dragons came surrounding the room and five elders (means minor gods) arrived the yard.  In the record of Sap Wai Gei  (《拾遺記》means to record the missed), a keilun(麒麟a legendary deer-like animal)dropped a ‘jade’ book in the Kut Lane (闕里), his hometown ( a legendary sign that a holy person will be born in that place). One saying was that he was born in the eastern side of the Kwan Ling Cave (坤靈洞東) of Nei Hill (尼山). Another saying was that he was considered as a monster because of his ugly appearance; his father disposed him in a cave.  However, a tigress carried him to her nest and fed him and an eagle fanned him. Another saying was that the lawn where he was born became permanently stained red in color. All these legendary stories were having only one purpose, to identify Confucius as an extraordinary person.

可信的記載是孔子生在魯國陬邑,昌平鄉 (即今山東曲阜東南)。據說父母為了誕生一個健全的兒子,曾在尼丘山禱告。所以,孔子被命名為丘,別字仲尼。另一說法,孔子出生時,頭顶内凹(圩顶),有如山丘,故此命名為丘。在孔子三歲時,他的父親便死了。葬在防山。叔梁紇的妻子施氏便成一家之主。因為顏氏是妾,所以,連送殯的資格也沒有。叔梁紇葬在那裏,當時便成為一個迷。

The reliable record was that Confucius was born in the Chui Town of the Cheung Ping County in the State of Lo (魯國昌平鄉陬邑, 即今山東曲阜東南 a place in the southeast of Shandong of nowadays).  Hoping to have a healthy and normal child, his parents prayed in the Nei Yau Hill (尼丘山).  It is believed that is the reason why he was named Yau, (丘 means hill ), alias Jung Nei(仲尼). However another explanation was due to the concaving of his head with bulging sides at birth. When he was three years old, Confucius lost his father.  Suk Liang Nat was buried in Fong Hill ( 防山).  His wife became the head of the family.  As a concubine, Yan Si ( 顏氏 ) was not in the funeral procession.  The burial site became a puzzle to her.

聞說施氏不是一個正直善良的人.在叔梁紇死前一年前,她便把叔梁紇的妾(孟皮的母親)虐待而死。施氏對顏氏也不好。所以,在叔梁紇死後,顏氏便帶了兒子和孟皮,遷回到曲阜的闕里。在孔子十七歲時,顏氏也死了。孔子本想把母親葬在父親的墓邊,但因為不知道父親葬在那裏,結果,便把顏氏先葬在“五父之衢” 的地方,在調查清楚一切後,便把顏氏遷回防山,與叔梁紇合葬。

By rumor See Si ( 施氏) was not a righteous, kind person.  A year before the death of Suk Liang Nat, she tortured his first concubine, mother of Meng Pi (孟皮), to death.  See Si did not treat Yan Si well neither.  Therefore after the death of Suk Liang Nat, Yan Si took her own son and Meng Pi and returned to Kut Lane of Qufu(曲阜的闕里),.  When Confucius was seventeen years old, Yan Si died.  Confucius wished to bury his mother by the side of the tomb of his father.  Since he did not know the burial site of his father, Confucius buried Yan Si in a place called Woo Fu Ji Kui (五父之衢)  at  first.  After a throughout investigation, Confucius moved his mother tomb by the side of his father.  

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