孔氏起源 Starting of the Family Name Kong

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孔氏起源 Starting of the Family Name Kong

     孔氏的起源可以上溯到历史传说时期。远古皇帝时代已经有孔姓,因当时有个史官,叫孔甲,曾经作《盘盂》一书,但是因为孔甲之后没有孔姓世系资料,所以一般认为孔姓源于子姓,而源于子姓之孔又有三种说法:

 The origin of the family Kong can be traced back to the prehistoric time.  There was an archive official named Kong Gaap (孔甲) during the Ancient Emperors Period.  He wrote a book called Poon Yu (《盘盂》).  As there was no genealogical record showing the existence of his family, it is now mostly recognized that the Kong family is a branched out from the Ji family (孔姓源于子姓).  However there are three sayings about the branching off from the Ji family.

  第一、 跟据宋代的《广韵》记载,契是商族的始祖,为子姓,历经十四代,传到成汤,灭夏桀,建都于亳。成汤是一个圣明的君主,其子孙中有一支以商族的姓"子"以他字中的"乙"组合起来定为姓氏就是孔氏。
        
First: Based on the record of the book Gwong Waan (《广韵》) from the Sung dynasty (宋代), Chi (契) started the Shang tribe (商族) ; his family name was Ji (子姓).  After 14 generations, his descendant, Sing Tong (成汤), eliminated Ha Jie (夏桀). Sing Tong set up his capital in Boh (亳).  Sing Tong was a capable ruler ( literary he was recognized as a holy and understandable person in Chinese). A branch of his descendants combined Ji, the family name of the Shang ruler and one of his given names Yeut  (乙) and coined the new family name Kong Si (孔氏).

  第二、 据唐人林宝《元和姓篡》所说,西周初期,由殷紂王的哥哥微子启建立的宋国,为子姓。微子启死后,其弟衍继位。其曾孙的玄孙正考父,是宋国上卿。其子名嘉,字孔父,史称孔父嘉。春秋时期孔父嘉的后代,以孔为氏,就形成了这支孔氏。

Secondly:   Based on Yuen Woh Sing San(《元和姓篡》)a book written by Lam Bo of the Tong Dynasty (唐人林宝), at the beginning of the West Jau (西周),  Mei Ji Kai(微子启) , the older brother of  King Jau of the Yan Dynasty (殷紂王) and the creator of  the State of Sung, had the family named as Ji (为子姓).  After the death of Mei Ji Kai, his brother Yin (衍) succeeded the title.  The great grandson of his great great grandson Jing Hau Fu (正考父) was the Superior Official of the State of Sung (宋国上卿).  Son of Jing Hau Fu was Ga, alias Hung Fu (嘉,字孔父), and also known as Hung Fu Ga (孔父嘉) in history.  During the Chuen-chau era (春秋时期 ) his descendants called themselves as the Kong family.  This is the starting of the family of Kong  (the most likely correct source).  

  第三、 另据《姓考》等书的记载,春秋时期郑国(今河南新郑)有出自姬姓的孔氏,卫国(今河南滑县东)有出自古佶姓的孔氏,陈国(今河南淮阳)有出自妫姓的孔氏。

Thirdly:   Based on another records in books such as the Sing Hau (《姓考》), there was another Kong family originated from the Gai family (姬姓) in the State of Jang (郑国) during the Chuen-chau era.  From State of Wai (卫国), there was a Kong family coming from the ancient Kat family (佶姓).  From State of Chan (陈国), there was a Kong family coming from the family of Kwai  (妫姓).  

  第四、 以人名为姓。是郑穆公的后代。郑穆公,其后人有孔张,他的支庶子孙亦为孔氏,此为出自姬姓的孔氏别支。见《左传》。

Fourthly:  It is taking the given name as the family name.  It was from the descendants of Lord Muk of the State of Jang  (郑穆公).  A descendant of Lord Muk was by the name Kong Jeung (孔张).           Descendants from one of branched families of Kong Jeung named themselves the Kong.  They were from the family of Gai (姬姓), and could be another branch of the Kong (per the Book of Joh《左传》).  


據《孔子家語》引述《史記,宋微子世家》記錄﹕宋公稽生丁公申,申生湣公共和襄公熙,熙生弗父何和厲公方祀,從方祀以下,世襲為宋國卿。弗父何生宋父周,周生世子勝,勝生正考甫,考甫生孔父嘉。五世嫡親結束,分出同族,一說孔父這名號是生下來時由帝王所賜,後來的子孫就以這個名號來命名宗族。所以後來其中有一分支以孔為氏。由此處的引述,令人容易明白,孔姓的開始是因為五世嫡親結束,所以要另立姓氏。並以名號為根據。  (憲章060219)

Per the quotation in The Dialogue of the Confucius Family (《孔子家語》) from the Noble Family of Sung Mei Ji in the History Archive (《史記,宋微子世家》) Kai, Duke of Sung begot San, also known as Lord Ding; San begot Gong also known as Lord Meng and Hei, also known as Lord Seung; Hei begot Faat Foo Hoh and Fong Ji also known as Lord Lai. Afterwards, descends of Fong Ji inherited the position as ranking official of the Sung State. Faat Foo Hoh begot Jau of Sung Fu; Jau begot Sir Sing; Sing begot Jing Hau Po; Jing Hau Po begot Kong Foo Ga.  Per the social law at that time, after five generations a nobility family had to split to form a new branch family and terminate the using of the original family name.  Another saying was that the name Kong Foo was a title conferred by the Emperor at his birth; descendants inherited that the title Kong as the new family name of the clan.  From the quotation here, one can understand that the forming of the family name Kong is due to the social law that “after five generations a family had to split to form a new branch family”.
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太客氣了。謝。

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