[分享]英文版“论语”-----献给北美宗亲

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Yen Yuan asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "To subdue one's self

and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a man can for one day subdue

himself and return to propriety, an under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to

him. Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it from

others?"

Yen Yuan said, "I beg to ask the steps of that process." The Master replied,

"Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to

propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is

contrary to propriety." Yen Yuan then said, "Though I am deficient in

intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."

Chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, when you go

abroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to employ

the people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do to others as

you would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you in the

country, and none in the family." Chung-kung said, "Though I am deficient in

intelligence and vigor, I will make it my business to practice this lesson."

Sze-ma Niu asked about perfect virtue.

The Master said, "The man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in his

speech."

"Cautious and slow in his speech!" said Niu;-"is this what is meant by

perfect virtue?" The Master said, "When a man feels the difficulty of doing, can

he be other than cautious and slow in speaking?"

Sze-ma Niu asked about the superior man. The Master said, "The superior man

has neither anxiety nor fear."

"Being without anxiety or fear!" said Nui;"does this constitute what we call

the superior man?"

The Master said, "When internal examination discovers nothing wrong, what is

there to be anxious about, what is there to fear?"

Sze-ma Niu, full of anxiety, said, "Other men all have their brothers, I

only have not."

Tsze-hsia said to him, "There is the following saying which I have heard-

'Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honors depend upon

Heaven.'

"Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and

let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety:-then all within the

four seas will be his brothers. What has the superior man to do with being

distressed because he has no brothers?"

Tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, "He with

whom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements that

startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful may be called intelligent

indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling statements, are

successful, may be called farseeing."

Tsze-kung asked about government. The Master said, "The requisites of

government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military

equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler."

Tsze-kung said, "If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed

with, which of the three should be foregone first?" "The military equipment,"

said the Master.

Tsze-kung again asked, "If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two

must be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?" The Master answered,

"Part with the food. From of old, death has been the lot of an men; but if the

people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state."

Chi Tsze-ch'ang said, "In a superior man it is only the substantial

qualities which are wanted;-why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?"

Tsze-kung said, "Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but

four horses cannot overtake the tongue. Ornament is as substance; substance is

as ornament. The hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is like the

hide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair."

The Duke Ai inquired of Yu Zo, saying, "The year is one of scarcity, and the

returns for expenditure are not sufficient;-what is to be done?"

Yu Zo replied to him, "Why not simply tithe the people?"

"With two tenths, said the duke, "I find it not enough;-how could I do with

that system of one tenth?"

Yu Zo answered, "If the people have plenty, their prince will not be left to

want alone. If the people are in want, their prince cannot enjoy plenty alone."

Tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be

discovered, the Master said, "Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first

principles, and be moving continually to what is right,-this is the way to exalt

one's virtue.

"You love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and wish him to die.

Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of delusion.

'It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to make a

difference.'"

The Duke Ching, of Ch'i, asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied,

"There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister;

when the father is father, and the son is son."

"Good!" said the duke; "if, indeed, the prince be not prince, the not

minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I have my revenue,

can I enjoy it?"

The Master said, "Ah! it is Yu, who could with half a word settle

litigations!"

Tsze-lu never slept over a promise.

The Master said, "In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is

necessary, however, is to cause the people to have no litigations."

Tsze-chang asked about government. The Master said, "The art of governing is

to keep its affairs before the mind without weariness, and to practice them with

undeviating consistency."

The Master said, "By extensively studying all learning, and keeping himself

under the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not err

from what is right."

The Master said, "The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualities

of men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. The mean man does the

opposite of this."

Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government. Confucius replied, "To govern

means to rectify. If you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare not

to be correct?"

Chi K'ang, distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired of

Confucius how to do away with them. Confucius said, "If you, sir, were not

covetous, although you should reward them to do it, they would not steal."

Chi K'ang asked Confucius about government, saying, "What do you say to

killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" Confucius replied,

"Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? Let

your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The

relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the

grass. The grass must bend, when the wind blows across it."

Tsze-chang asked, "What must the officer be, who may be said to be

distinguished?"

The Master said, "What is it you call being distinguished?"

Tsze-chang replied, "It is to be heard of through the state, to be heard of

throughout his clan."

The Master said, "That is notoriety, not distinction.

"Now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and loves

righteousness. He examines people's words, and looks at their countenances. He

is anxious to humble himself to others. Such a man will be distinguished in the

country; he will be distinguished in his clan.

"As to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but his

actions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any doubts

about himself. Such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard of

in the clan."

Fan Ch'ih rambling with the Master under the trees about the rain altars,

said, "I venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and to

discover delusions."

The Master said, "Truly a good question!

"If doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success a

secondary consideration:-is not this the way to exalt virtue? To assail one's

own wickedness and not assail that of others;-is not this the way to correct

cherished evil? For a morning's anger to disregard one's own life, and involve

that of his parents;-is not this a case of delusion?"

Fan Ch'ih asked about benevolence. The Master said, "It is to love all men."

He asked about knowledge. The Master said, "It is to know all men."

Fan Ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers.

The Master said, "Employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in this

way the crooked can be made to be upright."

Fan Ch'ih retired, and, seeing Tsze-hsia, he said to him, "A Little while

ago, I had an interview with our Master, and asked him about knowledge. He said,

'Employ the upright, and put aside all the crooked;-in this way, the crooked

will be made to be upright.' What did he mean?"

Tsze-hsia said, "Truly rich is his saying!

"Shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the

people, and employed Kai-yao-on which all who were devoid of virtue disappeared.

T'ang, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people,

and employed I Yin-and an who were devoid of virtue disappeared."

Tsze-kung asked about friendship. The Master said, "Faithfully admonish your

friend, and skillfully lead him on. If you find him impracticable, stop. Do not

disgrace yourself."

The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man on grounds of culture meets

with his friends, and by friendship helps his virtue."
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Tsze-lu asked about government. The Master said, "Go before the people with

your example, and be laborious in their affairs."

He requested further instruction, and was answered, "Be not weary in these

things."

Chung-kung, being chief minister to the head of the Chi family, asked about

government. The Master said, "Employ first the services of your various officers,

pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and talents."

Chung-kung said, "How shall I know the men of virtue and talent, so that I

may raise them to office?" He was answered, "Raise to office those whom you know.

As to those whom you do not know, will others neglect them?"

Tsze-lu said, "The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with you

to administer the government. What will you consider the first thing to be

done?"

The Master replied, "What is necessary is to rectify names."

"So! indeed!" said Tsze-lu. "You are wide of the mark! Why must there be

such rectification?"

The Master said, "How uncultivated you are, Yu! A superior man, in regard to

what he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.

"If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of

things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs

cannot be carried on to success.

"When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music do not

flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be

properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not

know how to move hand or foot.

"Therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses may

be spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried out

appropriately. What the superior man requires is just that in his words there

may be nothing incorrect."

Fan Ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. The Master said, "I am not so

good for that as an old husbandman." He requested also to be taught gardening,

and was answered, "I am not so good for that as an old gardener."

Fan Ch'ih having gone out, the Master said, "A small man, indeed, is Fan Hsu!

If a superior man love propriety, the people will not dare not to be reverent.

If he love righteousness, the people will not dare not to submit to his example.

If he love good faith, the people will not dare not to be sincere. Now, when

these things obtain, the people from all quarters will come to him, bearing

their children on their backs; what need has he of a knowledge of husbandry?"

The Master said, "Though a man may be able to recite the three hundred odes,

yet if, when intrusted with a governmental charge, he knows not how to act, or

if, when sent to any quarter on a mission, he cannot give his replies unassisted,

notwithstanding the extent of his learning, of what practical use is it?"

The Master said, "When a prince's personal conduct is correct, his

government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct

is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed."

The Master said, "The governments of Lu and Wei are brothers."

The Master said of Ching, a scion of the ducal family of Wei, that he knew

the economy of a family well. When he began to have means, he said, "Ha! here is

a collection-!" When they were a little increased, he said, "Ha! this is

complete!" When he had become rich, he said, "Ha! this is admirable!"

When the Master went to Weil Zan Yu acted as driver of his carriage.

The Master observed, "How numerous are the people!"

Yu said, "Since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them?"

"Enrich them, was the reply.

"And when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" The Master said,

"Teach them."

The Master said, "If there were any of the princes who would employ me, in

the course of twelve months, I should have done something considerable. In three

years, the government would be perfected."

The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in succession for a

hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispense

with capital punishments.' True indeed is this saying!"

The Master said, "If a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would stir

require a generation, and then virtue would prevail."

The Master said, "If a minister make his own conduct correct, what

difficulty will he have in assisting in government? If he cannot rectify himself,

what has he to do with rectifying others?"

The disciple Zan returning from the court, the Master said to him, "How are

you so late?" He replied, "We had government business." The Master said, "It

must have been family affairs. If there had been government business, though I

am not now in office, I should have been consulted about it."

The Duke Ting asked whether there was a single sentence which could make a

country prosperous. Confucius replied, "Such an effect cannot be expected from

one sentence.

"There is a saying, however, which people have -'To be a prince is difficult;

to be a minister is not easy.'

"If a ruler knows this,-the difficulty of being a prince,-may there not be

expected from this one sentence the prosperity of his country?"

The duke then said, "Is there a single sentence which can ruin a country?"

Confucius replied, "Such an effect as that cannot be expected from one sentence.

There is, however, the saying which people have-'I have no pleasure in being a

prince, but only in that no one can offer any opposition to what I say!'

"If a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose them?

But if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may there not be expected

from this one sentence the ruin of his country?"

The Duke of Sheh asked about government.

The Master said, "Good government obtains when those who are near are made

happy, and those who are far off are attracted."

Tsze-hsia! being governor of Chu-fu, asked about government. The Master said,

"Do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small advantages.

Desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. Looking

at small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished."

The Duke of Sheh informed Confucius, saying, "Among us here there are those

who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their father have stolen a sheep,

they will bear witness to the fact."

Confucius said, "Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright

are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of the son, and the

son conceals the misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to be found in this."

Fan Ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, "It is, in retirement,

to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be reverently attentive;

in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. Though a man go among rude,

uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be neglected."

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him

to be called an officer? The Master said, "He who in his conduct of himself

maintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace his

prince's commission, deserves to be called an officer."

Tsze-kung pursued, "I venture to ask who may be placed in the next lower

rank?" And he was told, "He whom the circle of his relatives pronounce to be

filial, whom his fellow villagers and neighbors pronounce to be fraternal."

Again the disciple asked, "I venture to ask about the class still next in

order." The Master said, "They are determined to be sincere in what they say,

and to carry out what they do. They are obstinate little men. Yet perhaps they

may make the next class."

Tsze-kung finally inquired, "Of what sort are those of the present day, who

engage in government?" The Master said "Pooh! they are so many pecks and hampers,

not worth being taken into account."

The Master said, "Since I cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom I

might communicate my instructions, I must find the ardent and the cautiously-

decided. The ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the cautiously-decided

will keep themselves from what is wrong."

The Master said, "The people of the south have a saying -'A man without

constancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' Good!

"Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace."

The Master said, "This arises simply from not attending to the

prognostication."

The Master said, "The superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the mean

man is adulatory, but not affable."

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "What do you say of a man who is loved by all the

people of his neighborhood?" The Master replied, "We may not for that accord our

approval of him." "And what do you say of him who is hated by all the people of

his neighborhood?" The Master said, "We may not for that conclude that he is bad.

It is better than either of these cases that the good in the neighborhood love

him, and the bad hate him."

The Master said, "The superior man is easy to serve and difficult to please.

If you try to please him in any way which is not accordant with right, he will

not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses them according to their

capacity. The mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. If you try to

please him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may be

pleased. But in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal to

everything."

The Master said, "The superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The

mean man has pride without a dignified ease."

The Master said, "The firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest are

near to virtue."

Tsze-lu asked, saying, "What qualities must a man possess to entitle him to

be called a scholar?" The Master said, "He must be thus,-earnest, urgent, and

bland:-among his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, bland."

The Master said, "Let a good man teach the people seven years, and they may

then likewise be employed in war."

The Master said, "To lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw them

away."
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Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When good government

prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad government

prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary;-this is shameful."

"When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are

repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."

The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is

difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."

The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit

to be deemed a scholar."

The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, language may be

lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the actions

may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."

The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those

whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be

bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."

Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, "I was skillful at

archery, and Ao could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them died

a natural death. Yu and Chi personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and

they became possessors of the kingdom." The Master made no reply; but when Nan-

kung Kwo went out, he said, "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of

virtue indeed is this!"

The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been,

alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous."

The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with

its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its

object?"

The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, P'i Shan

first made the rough draft; Shi-shu examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yu,

the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and, finally, Tsze-

ch'an of Tung-li gave it the proper elegance and finish."

Some one asked about Tsze-ch'an. The Master said, "He was a kind man."

He asked about Tsze-hsi. The Master said, "That man! That man!"

He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, "the city of Pien,

with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Po family, who did

not utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarse

rice to eat."

The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich

without being proud is easy."

The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in the

families of Chao and Wei, but he is not fit to be great officer to either of the

states Tang or Hsieh."

Tsze-lu asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said, "Suppose a

man with the knowledge of Tsang Wu-chung, the freedom from covetousness of Kung-

ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Pien, and the varied talents of Zan Ch'iu; add to

these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music;-such a one might

be reckoned a COMPLETE man."

He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present

day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain, thinks of

righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; and

who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-such a man may

be reckoned a COMPLETE man."

The Master asked Kung-ming Chia about Kung-shu Wan, saying, "Is it true that

your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"

Kung-ming Chia replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the

truth.-My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get

tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men

do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with

righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." The Master

said, "So! But is it so with him?"

The Master said, "Tsang Wu-chung, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the

duke of Lu to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be said

that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was."

The Master said, "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright. The duke

Hwan of Ch'i was upright and not crafty."

Tsze-lu said, "The Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed, when Shao

Hu died, with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say that he was

wanting in virtue?"

The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and that

not with weapons of war and chariots:-it was all through the influence of Kwan

Chung. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"

Tsze-kung said, "Kwan Chung, I apprehend was wanting in virtue. When the

Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiu to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able to die

with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan."

The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the Duke Hwan made

him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down

to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan

Chung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats

buttoning on the left side.

"Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women,

who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about

them?"

The great officer, Hsien, who had been family minister to Kung-shu Wan,

ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.

The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be considered WAN (the

accomplished)."

The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of

Weil when Ch'i K'ang said, "Since he is of such a character, how is it he does

not lose his state?"

Confucius said, "The Chung-shu Yu has the superintendence of his guests and

of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of his ancestral temple; and

Wang-sun Chia has the direction of the army and forces:-with such officers as

these, how should he lose his state?"

The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to

make his words good."

Chan Ch'ang murdered the Duke Chien of Ch'i.

Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the Duke Ai, saying, "Chan Hang

has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him."

The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."

Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I

did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, "Inform the

chiefs of the three families of it."

He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius

then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to

represent such a matter."

Tsze-lu asked how a ruler should be served. The Master said, "Do not impose

on him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."

The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is upwards; the progress

of the mean man is downwards."

The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own

improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."

Chu Po-yu sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius.

Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is your master

engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few,

but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the Master said, "A

messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"

The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do

with plans for the administration of its duties."

The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go

out of his place."

The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in

his actions."

The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not

equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from

perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.

Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."

Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master said, "Tsze

must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this."

The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; I will be

concerned at my own want of ability."

The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor

think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things

readily when they occur;-is he not a man of superior worth?"

Wei-shang Mau said to Confucius, "Ch'iu, how is it that you keep roosting

about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker?

Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I hate

obstinacy."

The Master said, "A horse is called a ch'i, not because of its strength, but

because of its other good qualities."

Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should

be recompensed with kindness?"

The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?"

"Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."

The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me."

Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying-that no one knows you?" The

Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not grumble against men.

My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;-that

knows me!"

The Kung-po Liao, having slandered Tsze-lu to Chi-sun, Tsze-fu Ching-po

informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our master is certainly being led astray by

the Kung-po Liao, but I have still power enough left to cut Liao off, and expose

his corpse in the market and in the court."

The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. If they

are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the Kung-po Liao do where

such ordering is concerned?"

The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world. Some retire from

particular states. Some retire because of disrespectful looks. Some retire

because of contradictory language."

The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."

Tsze-lu happening to pass the night in Shih-man, the gatekeeper said to him,

"Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lu said, "From Mr. K'ung." "It is he,-is it not?"-

said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the times and yet will be

doing in them."

The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in Weil when a man

carrying a straw basket passed door of the house where Confucius was, and said,

"His heart is full who so beats the musical stone."

A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the one-ideaed

obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of, he has simply at

once to give over his wish for public employment. 'Deep water must be crossed

with the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'"

The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not

difficult!"

Tsze-chang said, "What is meant when the Shu says that Kao-tsung, while

observing the usual imperial mourning, was for three years without speaking?"

The Master said, "Why must Kao-tsung be referred to as an example of this?

The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers all attended to

their several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for three

years."

The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, the

people respond readily to the calls on them for service."

Tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "The

cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "And is this all?" said

Tsze-lu. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others," was the reply.

"And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lu. The Master said, "He cultivates himself

so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest

to all the people:-even Yao and Shun were still solicitous about this."

Yuan Zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach of the

Master, who said to him, "In youth not humble as befits a junior; in manhood,

doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and living on to old age:-this is to

be a pest." With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.

A youth of the village of Ch'ueh was employed by Confucius to carry the

messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, "I

suppose he has made great progress."

The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-

grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. He is

not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become

a man."
9楼
15

The Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about tactics. Confucius replied, "I

have heard all about sacrificial vessels, but I have not learned military

matters." On this, he took his departure the next day.

When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers

became so in that they were unable to rise.

Tsze-lu, with evident dissatisfaction, said, "Has the superior man likewise

to endure in this way?" The Master said, "The superior man may indeed have to

endure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled

license."

The Master said, "Ts'ze, you think, I suppose, that I am one who learns many

things and keeps them in memory?"

Tsze-kung replied, "Yes,-but perhaps it is not so?"

"No," was the answer; "I seek a unity all pervading."

The Master said, "Yu I those who know virtue are few."

The Master said, "May not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently

without exertion? What did he do? He did nothing but gravely and reverently

occupy his royal seat."

Tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be everywhere

appreciated.

The Master said, "Let his words be sincere and truthful and his actions

honorable and careful;-such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes of

the South or the North. If his words be not sincere and truthful and his actions

not honorable and carefull will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even in

his neighborhood?

"When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him.

When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to the yoke. Then may he

subsequently carry them into practice."

Tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.

The Master said, "Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yu. When

good government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow. When bad

government prevailed, he was like an arrow. A superior man indeed is Chu Po-yu!

When good government prevails in his state, he is to be found in office. When

bad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, and keep them in his

breast."

The Master said, "When a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him is to

err in reference to the man. When a man may not be spoken with, to speak to him

is to err in reference to our words. The wise err neither in regard to their man

nor to their words."

The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek

to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They will even sacrifice their

lives to preserve their virtue complete."

Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said, "The mechanic,

who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen his tools. When you are

living in any state, take service with the most worthy among its great officers,

and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars."

Yen Yuan asked how the government of a country should be administered.

The Master said, "Follow the seasons of Hsia.

"Ride in the state carriage of Yin.

"Wear the ceremonial cap of Chau.

"Let the music be the Shao with its pantomimes. Banish the songs of Chang,

and keep far from specious talkers. The songs of Chang are licentious; specious

talkers are dangerous."

The Master said, "If a man take no thought about what is distant, he will

find sorrow near at hand."

The Master said, "It is all over! I have not seen one who loves virtue as he

loves beauty."

The Master said, "Was not Tsang Wan like one who had stolen his situation?

He knew the virtue and the talents of Hui of Liu-hsia, and yet did not procure

that he should stand with him in court."

The Master said, "He who requires much from himself and little from others,

will keep himself from being the object of resentment."

The Master said, "When a man is not in the habit of saying-'What shall I

think of this? What shall I think of this?' I can indeed do nothing with him!"

The Master said, "When a number of people are together, for a whole day,

without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond of

carrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness;-theirs is indeed a hard

case."

The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to

be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it

forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior

man."

The Master said, "The superior man is distressed by his want of ability. He

is not distressed by men's not knowing him."

The Master said, "The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not

being mentioned after his death."

The Master said, "What the superior man seeks, is in himself. What the mean

man seeks, is in others."

The Master said, "The superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. He is

sociable, but not a partisan."

The Master said, "The superior man does not promote a man simply on account

of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man."

Tsze-kung asked, saying, "Is there one word which may serve as a rule of

practice for all one's life?" The Master said, "Is not RECIPROCITY such a word?

What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."

The Master said, "In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, whose

goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I do sometimes exceed in praise,

there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual.

"This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path of

straightforwardness."

The Master said, "Even in my early days, a historiographer would leave a

blank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. Now,

alas! there are no such things."

The Master said, "Specious words confound virtue. Want of forbearance in

small matters confounds great plans."

The Master said, "When the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine

into the case. When the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine into

the case."

The Master said, "A man can enlarge the principles which he follows; those

principles do not enlarge the man."

The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them,-this, indeed,

should be pronounced having faults."

The Master said, "I have been the whole day without eating, and the whole

night without sleeping:-occupied with thinking. It was of no use. better plan is

to learn."

The Master said, "The object of the superior man is truth. Food is not his

object. There is plowing;-even in that there is sometimes want. So with

learning;-emolument may be found in it. The superior man is anxious lest he

should not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him."

The Master said, "When a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his

virtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, he

will lose again.

"When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to

hold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect him.

"When his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough to

hold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the people

contrary to the rules of propriety:-full excellence is not reached."

The Master said, "The superior man cannot be known in little matters; but he

may be intrusted with great concerns. The small man may not be intrusted with

great concerns, but he may be known in little matters."

The Master said, "Virtue is more to man than either water or fire. I have

seen men die from treading on water and fire, but I have never seen a man die

from treading the course of virtue."

The Master said, "Let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself.

He may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher."

The Master said, "The superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."

The Master said, "A minister, in serving his prince, reverently discharges

his duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration."

The Master said, "In teaching there should be no distinction of classes."

The Master said, "Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one

another."

The Master said, "In language it is simply required that it convey the

meaning."

The music master, Mien, having called upon him, when they came to the steps,

the Master said, "Here are the steps." When they came to the mat for the guest

to sit upon, he said, "Here is the mat." When all were seated, the Master

informed him, saying, "So and so is here; so and so is here."

The music master, Mien, having gone out, Tsze-chang asked, saying. "Is it

the rule to tell those things to the music master?"

The Master said, "Yes. This is certainly the rule for those who lead the

blind."
10楼
16

The head of the Chi family was going to attack Chwan-yu.

Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our chief,

Chil is going to commence operations against Chwan-yu."

Confucius said, "Ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault here?

"Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler to

preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of

the territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct connection

with the sovereign: What has your chief to do with attacking it?"

Zan Yu said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers

wishes it."

Confucius said, "Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan, -'When he can put

forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds

himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a

blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when

fallen?'

"And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from his

cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository:-whose is

the fault?"

Zan Yu said, "But at present, Chwan-yu is strong and near to Pi; if our

chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants."

Confucius said. "Ch'iu, the superior man hates those declining to say-'I

want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their conduct.

"I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled

lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep

their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are

troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their

several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no

poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when

there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.

"So it is.-Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the

influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to

be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and

tranquil.

"Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, assisting your chief. Remoter people are

not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own

territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with

your help, he cannot preserve it.

"And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state.-I am

afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sun family will not be on account of Chwan-yu,

but will be found within the screen of their own court."

Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies,

music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When

bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military

expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes,

as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten

generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule,

the case will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations.

When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the

orders of the state, as a rule the cases will be few in which they do not lose

their power in three generations.

"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the

hands of the great officers.

"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions

among the common people."

Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal house now for

five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for

four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much

reduced."

Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous, and

three which are injurious. Friendship with the uplight; friendship with the

sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation:-these are advantageous.

Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft;

and friendship with the glib-tongued:-these are injurious."

Confucius said, "There are three things men find enjoyment in which are

advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To

find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find

enjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having

many worthy friends:-these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant

pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in

the pleasures of feasting:-these are injurious."

Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they who stand in the

presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak when it does

not come to them to speak;-this is called rashness. They may not speak when it

comes to them to speak;-this is called concealment. They may speak without

looking at the countenance of their superior;-this is called blindness."

Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man guards

against. In youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guards

against lust. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor, he

guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are

decayed, he guards against covetousness."

Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in

awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men.

He stands in awe of the words of sages.

"The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does

not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of

the words of sages."

Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the

highest class of men. Those who learn, and so readily get possession of

knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the

learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid

and yet do not learn;-they are the lowest of the people."

Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with

him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious

to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear

distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign.

In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard

to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing

of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to

what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he

thinks of the difficulties his anger may involve him in. When he sees gain to be

got, he thinks of righteousness."

Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not

reach it; contemplating evil! and shrinking from it, as they would from

thrusting the hand into boiling water:-I have seen such men, as I have heard

such words.

"Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing righteousness to

carry out their principles:-I have heard these words, but I have not seen such

men."

The Duke Ching of Ch'i had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on the

day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. Po-i and

Shu-ch'i died of hunger at the foot of the Shau-yang mountains, and the people,

down to the present time, praise them.

"Is not that saying illustrated by this?"

Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yu, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from your

father different from what we have all heard?"

Po-yu replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the hall

with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying

'Not yet,' he added, If you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to

converse with.' I retired and studied the Odes.

"Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below

the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the rules of

Propriety?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the rules

of Propriety, your character cannot be established.' I then retired, and learned

the rules of Propriety.

"I have heard only these two things from him."

Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one thing, and I

have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the rules

of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant

reserve towards his son."

The wife of the prince of a state is called by him Fu Zan. She calls herself

Hsiao T'ung. The people of the state call her Chun Fu Zan, and, to the people of

other states, they call her K'wa Hsiao Chun. The people of other states also

call her Chun Fu Zan.
11楼
17

Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but Confucius would not go to see him. On

this, he sent a present of a pig to Confucius, who, having chosen a time when Ho

was not at home went to pay his respects for the gift. He met him, however, on

the way.

Ho said to Confucius, "Come, let me speak with you." He then asked, "Can he

be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his country to

confusion?" Confucius replied, "No." "Can he be called wise, who is anxious to

be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of

being so?" Confucius again said, "No." "The days and months are passing away;

the years do not wait for us." Confucius said, "Right; I will go into office."

The Master said, "By nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get to

be wide apart."

The Master said, "There are only the wise of the highest class, and the

stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed."

The Master, having come to Wu-ch'ang, heard there the sound of stringed

instruments and singing.

Well pleased and smiling, he said, "Why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?"

Tsze-yu replied, "Formerly, Master, I heard you say,-'When the man of high

station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is well

instructed, he is easily ruled.'"

The Master said, "My disciples, Yen's words are right. What I said was only

in sport."

Kung-shan Fu-zao, when he was holding Pi, and in an attitude of rebellion,

invited the Master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go.

Tsze-lu was displeased. and said, "Indeed, you cannot go! Why must you think

of going to see Kung-shan?"

The Master said, "Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If

any one employ me, may I not make an eastern Chau?"

Tsze-chang asked Confucius about perfect virtue. Confucius said, "To be able

to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue." He

begged to ask what they were, and was told, "Gravity, generosity of soul,

sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated

with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win all. If you are sincere,

people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much.

If you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others.

Pi Hsi inviting him to visit him, the Master was inclined to go.

Tsze-lu said, "Master, formerly I have heard you say, 'When a man in his own

person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with him.' Pi

Hsi is in rebellion, holding possession of Chung-mau; if you go to him, what

shall be said?"

The Master said, "Yes, I did use these words. But is it not said, that, if a

thing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? Is it not said,

that, if a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid without

being made black?

"Am I a bitter gourd? How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten?"

The Master said, "Yu, have you heard the six words to which are attached six

becloudings?" Yu replied, "I have not."

"Sit down, and I will tell them to you.

"There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning;-the

beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing

without the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind.

There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning;-the beclouding

here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of

straightforwardness without the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to

rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning;-the

beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without

the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct."

The Master said, "My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry?

"The Odes serve to stimulate the mind.

"They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.

"They teach the art of sociability.

"They show how to regulate feelings of resentment.

"From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and

the remoter one of serving one's prince.

"From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and

plants."

The Master said to Po-yu, "Do you give yourself to the Chau-nan and the

Shao-nan. The man who has not studied the Chau-nan and the Shao-nan is like one

who stands with his face right against a wall. Is he not so?" The Master said,

"'It is according to the rules of propriety,' they say.-'It is according to the

rules of propriety,' they say. Are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety?

'It is music,' they say.-'It is music,' they say. Are hers and drums all that is

meant by music?"

The Master said, "He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while

inwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people;-yea, is he not like

the thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?"

The Master said, "Your good, careful people of the villages are the thieves

of virtue."

The Master said, To tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, is

to cast away our virtue."

The Master said, "There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is along

with them to serve one's prince!

"While they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. When

they have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them.

"When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to

which they will not proceed."

The Master said, "Anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps are

not to be found.

"The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small

things; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. The

stern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity of

the present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. The stupidity of

antiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present day

shows itself in sheer deceit."

The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom

associated with virtue."

The Master said, "I hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster of

vermilion. I hate the way in which the songs of Chang confound the music of the

Ya. I hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families."

The Master said, "I would prefer not speaking."

Tsze-kung said, "If you, Master, do not speak, what shall we, your disciples,

have to record?"

The Master said, "Does Heaven speak? The four seasons pursue their courses,

and all things are continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything?"

Zu Pei wished to see Confucius, but Confucius declined, on the ground of

being sick, to see him. When the bearer of this message went out at the door,

the Master took his lute and sang to it, in order that Pei might hear him.

Tsai Wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying that one

year was long enough.

"If the superior man," said he, "abstains for three years from the

observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. If for three

years he abstains from music, music will be ruined. Within a year the old grain

is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire by

friction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. After a

complete year, the mourning may stop."

The Master said, "If you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wear

embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?" "I should," replied Wo.

The Master said, "If you can feel at ease, do it. But a superior man, during

the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, nor

derive pleasure from music which he may hear. He also does not feel at ease, if

he is comfortably lodged. Therefore he does not do what you propose. But now you

feel at ease and may do it."

Tsai Wo then went out, and the Master said, "This shows Yu's want of virtue.

It is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the arms

of its parents. And the three years' mourning is universally observed throughout

the empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' love of his parents?"

The Master said, "Hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with food

the whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! Are there not

gamesters and chess players? To be one of these would still be better than doing

nothing at all."

Tsze-lu said, "Does the superior man esteem valor?" The Master said, "The

superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a

superior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty of

insubordination; one of the lower people having valor without righteousness,

will commit robbery."

Tsze-kung said, "Has the superior man his hatreds also?" The Master said,

"He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others. He hates

the man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. He hates those who

have valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. He hates those who are

forward and determined, and, at the same time, of contracted understanding."

The Master then inquired, "Ts'ze, have you also your hatreds?" Tsze-kung

replied, "I hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to their

wisdom. I hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous.

I hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward."

The Master said, "Of all people, girls and servants are the most difficult

to behave to. If you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. If you

maintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented."

The Master said, "When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will

always continue what he is."

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